Official publication of Rawalpindi Medical University
Descriptive Analysis Of Electrolyte Imbalance In Relation To Severity Of Illness In Covid-19 Pediatric Patients Admitted In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Rawalpindi Pakistan

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Asghar RM, Sharif M, Saheel K, Shabbir A, Hussain A, Hussain M. Descriptive Analysis Of Electrolyte Imbalance In Relation To Severity Of Illness In Covid-19 Pediatric Patients Admitted In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Rawalpindi Pakistan. JRMC [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 1 [cited 2024 Jun. 15];28(1). Available from: http://www.journalrmc.com/index.php/JRMC/article/view/2297

Abstract

Objective

To determine the frequency of electrolyte imbalance in pediatric COVID-19 patients and their impact on the severity of disease and outcome.

Methods:

A retrospective observational study was done from January 2021 to July 2021 on 61 children admitted in Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi, a tertiary care teaching hospital affiliated with Rawalpindi Medical University (RMU) Pakistan. The age of the patients ranged from infants to 12 years. All the children who were PCR positive or those whose HRCT was suggestive of COVID-19 were included in the study.

Results:

During the study period of 7 months, 61 confirmed COVID-19 patients were admitted. 37(60.7%) were males and 24 (39.3%) were females. The age of the patients ranged from infants to 12 years with a mean age of 27.25 months. Out of 61 admitted cases, 28 children (45.9%) had moderate & 33(54.1%) patients had severe disease. 46(75%) patients were discharged while 15(25%) patients expired.

A number of electrolyte abnormalities were observed. A total of 30 patients (49.2%) were hyponatremic &13 patients (21.3%) were hypernatremic. Hypokalemia was observed in 34(55.7%) & hyperkalemia was found in 2 patients (3.3%), hypochloremia was observed in 13(21.3%) while hyperchloremia was present in 3(4.9%) patients. Hypocalcemia was found in 9(14.7%) patients.

11(18%) patients with Hyponatremia and 6(9.8%) patients with hypernatremia expired. The potassium abnormalities were also associated with significant mortality.14(22.9%) patients with hypokalemia and 2(3.2%) with hyperkalemia expired. Hypocalcemia was found in 9(4.9%) patients who expired.

Conclusion:

Hypokalemia and hyponatremia were frequent electrolyte disorders in children with COVID-19. These electrolyte abnormalities were associated significantly with severity of disease and a higher risk of death in children with COVID-19

Keywords: COVID-19, Electrolytes, Hypokalemia, Hyperkalemia, Hyponatremia, Hypernatremia, Hypocalcemia

https://doi.org/10.37939/jrmc.v28i1.2297
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Copyright (c) 2024 Rai Muhammad Asghar, Muddassar Sharif, Khalid Saheel, Asad Shabbir, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Hussain