Official publication of Rawalpindi Medical University
The Role of Fathers’ Expressed Emotions in Psychopathology and Social-Emotional Competence in Adolescents

Supplementary Files



Positive expressed emotions, Negative expressed emotions, psychopathology, Adolescents, social anxiety, social-emotional competence

How to Cite

Akhtar S, Mughal FAR. The Role of Fathers’ Expressed Emotions in Psychopathology and Social-Emotional Competence in Adolescents. JRMC [Internet]. 2023 Apr. 2 [cited 2023 Jun. 5];27(1). Available from:


Background: To study the role of fathers’ expressed emotions in psychopathology and social-emotional competence in adolescents.

Methods: Through observational research design a study was conducted in the district Gujrat Pakistan from July 2020 to march 2021.As the inclusion criteria of the study was to include adolescents whose age range was 12 to 19 and the only fathers included whose children were adolescents. So the purposive sampling technique was used and five hundred adolescents were selected from different colleges and schools, five hundred fathers of same adolescents   approached from the community and their working places. For this purpose Parental Expressed Emotions Scale 1 was used and to assess the psychopathology (Social anxiety) and social-emotional competence in adolescents, Social Anxiety Scale,2 and Social Emotional-Competence Scale 3 were used and data was analyzed by using SPSS-21.

Results: A total of 500 adolescents selected for study whose age range was from 12-19 years 4 and mean age of 16 years. In which 229 (46%) were boys and 271 (54%) were girls. Simple linear regression was used to see the effects of father expressed emotions in psychopathology and social-emotional competence in adolescents. Results showed significant difference in negative and positive expressed emotions of father. Father’ expressed emotions of critical comments caused 56%and hostility 64% predictor of social anxiety in adolescents. On the other hand father emotional -over involvement caused 11% warmth 37% and positive remarks 17% increase in social-emotional competence of adolescents.

Conclusion: Father expressed emotions found to be significant predictor of social anxiety and social-emotional competence in adolescents.


In the current study statistically significant predictive relationship has been found among fathers’ expressed emotions of critical comments, hostility, emotional-over involvement, positive remarks and warmth on adolescents’ social anxiety and social-emotional competence.

These kinds of studies can promote a deeper understanding of fathers that what are the expressed emotions, and how they associated with adolescents' mental health issues like social anxiety and as well as with social-emotional competencies.

The present study was based on the fathers expressed emotions with their normal adolescents which is very first study in Pakistan.

In current study not only explored the role of father expressed emotions but also provide prevalence of social anxiety among adolescents which is very rarely studied in Pakistan.

Although there would be not possible to find out gender, age and institution wise differences in single study although it will be helpful to provide grounds for future researchers to explore these aspects in their studies.


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Copyright (c) 2023 Shammem Akhtar, Fatima Ali Raza Mughal