Official publication of Rawalpindi Medical University
Impact of E-Learning, Perception and Attitude among Students and Faculty following the COVID-19 Pandemic

Supplementary Files



Coronavirus, Education, E-Learning, Pakistan, Teaching, Undergraduate medical education, Virtual learning experience.

How to Cite

Zia SH, Rizwan G, Ehsan A, Rizwan Z, Masood R, Umer N. Impact of E-Learning, Perception and Attitude among Students and Faculty following the COVID-19 Pandemic. JRMC [Internet]. 2023 Apr. 2 [cited 2023 Jun. 5];27(1). Available from:


Background and Aim: The Novel coronavirus disease has grasped the world as one of the most devastating pandemics of recent times. Many efforts such as social distancing was made to cut down the spread of the virus in its early days and restrictions were followed by numerous countries worldwide which resulted in serious hurdles in all sectors of our daily lives such as education, financial and social activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the implications of E-Learning and its future use by students and faculty members following the pandemic restrictions.

Material and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey that was distributed online among students and faculty members belonging to medical and non-medical programs across universities in major cities of Pakistan.

Results: Of the total 476 responses, it was evident that the majority of the students were not satisfied with the learning experience that virtual classrooms provided. Concerning clinical and practical skills, a majority agreed that the online teaching method is not an effective way to develop essential skills.

Conclusion: Online education may be a necessary technological advancement needed in the field of education, but as concluded from the results of this study there is a disagreement about virtual classrooms being an effective medium of learning. It is also inconvenient to develop appropriate practical and clinical skills using E-learning as a medium.


. Chen J. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV—a quick overview and comparison with other emerging viruses. Microbes and infection. 2020;22(2):69-71.

CDC. How to protect yourself & others. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2022. Available online at: (last accessed on 19.09.2022)

UNESCO U. COVID-19 educational disruption and response. UNESCO. 2020. Available online at: (last accessed on 19.09.2022)

Preeti Tarkar. Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On Education System. IJAST [Internet]. 2020May18 [cited 2022Sep.19];29(9s):3812 -3814. Available from:

Xu D, Xu Y. The Promises and Limits of Online Higher Education: Understanding How Distance Education Affects Access, Cost, and Quality. American Enterprise Institute. 2019 Mar.

Nulty DD. The adequacy of response rates to online and paper surveys: what can be done?. Assessment & evaluation in higher education. 2008 Jun 1;33(3):301-14.

Vohra F, Habib R. Knowledge and attitude of dentists toward implant retained restorations in Saudi Arabia. Nigerian journal of clinical practice. 2015;18(3):312-7.

DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.151788

Abbasi MS, Ahmed N, Sajjad B, Alshahrani A, Saeed S, Sarfaraz S, Alhamdan RS, Vohra F, Abduljabbar T. E-Learning perception and satisfaction among health sciences students amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Work. 2020 Jan 1;67(3):549-56. DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203308

Malik N, Dahiya M. A Survey of Teachers’ and Students’ Perspective On E-Learning During Covid-19 in Delhi. MIER Journal of Educational Studies Trends and Practices. 2021 Nov 19:200-22.

Wijayanto YR, Andayani A, Sumarwati S. Utilization of microsoft teams 365 as an alternative for distance learning media amid the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding. 2021 Feb 2;8(2):87-93. DOI:

Umek L, Keržič D, Aristovnik A, Tomaževič N. Analysis of selected aspects of students’ performance and satisfaction in a Moodle-based e-learning system environment. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 2015 Sep 29;11(6):1495-505.

Luo L, Cheng X, Wang S, Zhang J, Zhu W, Yang J, Liu P. Blended learning with Moodle in medical statistics: an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to e-learning. BMC medical education. 2017 Dec;17(1):1-8. DOI:

Rathee N, Sarkar C. COVID-19 Lockdown: how the pandemic bringing change in Indian education system. Impact of COVID-19 and pandemic lockdown in India. Balewadi: Eureka Publications. 2020.

Li W, Gillies R, He M, Wu C, Liu S, Gong Z, Sun H. Barriers and facilitators to online medical and nursing education during the COVID-19 pandemic: Perspectives from international students from low-and middle-income countries and their teaching staff. Human Resources for Health. 2021 Dec;19(1):1-4. DOI:

Al-Balas M, Al-Balas HI, Jaber HM, Obeidat K, Al-Balas H, Aborajooh EA, Al-Taher R, Al-Balas B. Distance learning in clinical medical education amid COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan: current situation, challenges, and perspectives. BMC medical education. 2020 Dec;20(1):1-7. DOI:

Al‐Taweel FB, Abdulkareem AA, Gul SS, Alshami ML. Evaluation of technology‐based learning by dental students during the pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019. European Journal of Dental Education. 2021 Feb;25(1):183-90.

González-Gómez F, Guardiola J, Rodríguez ÓM, Alonso MÁ. Gender differences in e-learning satisfaction. Computers & Education. 2012 Jan 1;58(1):283-90.

Abdullah MN. Interaction Effects of Gender and Motivational Beliefs on Self-Regulated Learning: A Study at ICT-Integrated Schools. Malaysian Journal of learning and Instruction. 2016;13(1):25-41.

Arenas Gaitán J, Rondán Cataluña FJ, Ramírez Correa P. Gender influence in perception and adoption of e-learning platforms. InAdvances in data networks, communications, computers. 9th WSEAS International Conference on Data Networks, Communications, Computers (2010), pp. 30-35. 2010. WSEAS.

Azimi HM. E-Learning Needs Assessment among Students in the Colleges of Education. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology. 2014;2(1):11-22.

Gormley GJ, Collins K, Boohan M, Bickle IC, Stevenson M. Is there a place for e-learning in clinical skills? A survey of undergraduate medical students’ experiences and attitudes. Medical teacher. 2009 Jan 1;31(1):e6-12.

Ikram UZ, Essink-Bot ML, Suurmond J. How we developed an effective e-learning module for medical students on using professional interpreters. Medical teacher. 2015 May 4;37(5):422-7.`

Khasawneh R, Simonsen K, Snowden J, Higgins J, Beck G. The effectiveness of e-learning in pediatric medical student education. Medical education online. 2016 Jan 1;21(1):29516.

Fredricks JA. Engagement in school and out-of-school contexts: A multidimensional view of engagement. Theory into practice. 2011 Oct 4;50(4):327-35.

O’Lawrence H. A review of distance learning influences on adult learners: advantages and disadvantages. InProceedings of the 2005 Informing Science and IT Education Joint Conference 2005.

Vaona A, Banzi R, Kwag KH, Rigon G, Cereda D, Pecoraro V, Tramacere I, Moja L. E‐learning for health professionals. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2018(1).

Means B, Toyama Y, Murphy R, Bakia M, Jones K. Evaluation of evidence-based practices in online learning: A meta-analysis and review of online learning studies.

Lorenzo G. A Research Review about Online Learning: Are Students Satisfied? Why so Some Succeed and Others Fail? What Contributes to Higher Retention Rates and Positive Learning Outcomes?. Journal of Online Learning Research and Practice. 2012 Sep 1;1(1):26869.

Venkatesh S, Rao YK, Nagaraja H, Woolley T, Alele FO, Malau-Aduli BS. Factors influencing medical students’ experiences and satisfaction with blended integrated E-learning. Medical Principles and Practice. 2020;29(4):396-402.

Copyright (c) 2023 Syed Hamza Zia, Ghina Rizwan, Zarnab Rizwan, Rabia Masood, Naila Umer, Afifa Ehsan