OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with seropositivity of hepatitis B and C at Azad Jammu and Kashmir
STUDY DESIGN: Case Control study.
SETTING AND DURATION: Department of Gastroenterology Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Hospital/ AK Combined Military Hospital Rawalakot, from 1s tJanuary 2021 to 30th June 2021.
METHODOLOGY: This study involved 173 patients suffering from Hepatitis B or C.144 age and gender matched healthy controls was enrolled from within the hospital. Detailed socio-demographic proforma was filled by both the cases and controls which included all the relevant factors. Pearson chi-square test was applied to look for statistically significant difference in factors associated with seropositivity of hepatitis B and C among cases and controls.
RESULTS: A totalof 317 participants were included in the study. 144 were healthy controls and 173 were patients suffering from hepatitis B and C. 149 (86.1%) had hepatitis C while 24 (13.9%) had hepatitis B. Mean age of the study participants were 36.95±3.19 years. Marital status, positive family history of hepatitis B and C and history of surgery or dental procedure had statistically significant relationship with seropositivity of Hepatitis B and C (p-value<0.05)
CONCLUSION: Individuals who were married or had anybody in family positive for hepatitis B and C were more at risk of having these infections. In this study dental procedures, surgeries and family history of these infections have highest incidence of risk factors associated with HCV & HBV infections
Burrell CJ, Howard CR, Murphy FA. Epidemiology of Viral Infections. Fenner and White's Medical Virology. 2017;6(3):185-203. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-375156-0.00013-8
Mehta P, Reddivari AKR. Hepatitis. [Updated 2021 Jan 16]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554549/
Kamani L, Ahmad BS, Kalwar HA. Hepatitis-C Infection: Are we really committed to eliminate? Could it become the second Polio for Pakistan?. Pak J Med Sci. 2020;36(7):1742-1744. doi:10.12669/pjms.36.7.2804
Salamat A, Zubair UB, Shafqat H, Saeed F. assessment of patients with chronic liver disease qualifying for liver transplant. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2012;62(1):3-6.
Javed N, Nadeem MH, Ghazanfar H. Hepatitis B and C in Pakistan: A community survey. Cureus. 2019 Oct 24;11(10):e5992. doi: 10.7759/cureus.5992. PMID: 31807380; PMCID: PMC6876910.
Butt AS, Sharif F. Viral Hepatitis in Pakistan: Past, Present, and Future. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol. 2016;6(1):70-81. doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1172
Wang S, Tao Y, Tao Y, Jiang J, Yan L, Wang C, et al. Epidemiological study of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections in Northeastern China and the beneficial effect of the vaccination strategy for hepatitis B: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2018 Sep 3;18(1):1088. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5984-6. PMID: 30176842; PMCID: PMC6122542.
Ashraf H, Alam NH, Rothermundt C, Brooks A, Bardhan P, Hossain Let al. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus infections in an impoverished urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 15;10(3):208. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-208. PMID: 20630111; PMCID: PMC2918606.
Tufon KA, Meriki HD, Kwenti TE, Tony NJ, Malika E, Bolimo AF, et al. HBV Transmission Risk Assessment in Healthcare Workers, Household and Sexual Contacts of HBV Infected Patients in the Southwest Region of Cameroon. Oman Med J. 2019 Jul;34(4):313-321. doi: 10.5001/omj.2019.62. PMID: 31360320; PMCID: PMC6642709.
Seerat I, Mushtaq H, Rafiq M, Nadir A. Frequency and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Children at a Hepatitis Prevention and Treatment Clinic in Lahore, Pakistan. Cureus. 2020 May 2;12(5):e7926. doi: 10.7759/cureus.7926. PMID: 32494536; PMCID: PMC7265754.
Muhamad NA, Ab Ghani RM, Abdul Mutalip MH, Muhammad EN, Mohamad Haris H, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection among Malaysian population. Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 3;10(1):21009. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-77813-5. PMID: 33273475; PMCID: PMC7713078.
Ansari SH, Shamsi TS, Khan MT, Parveen K, Farzana T, Erum S, et al. Seropositivity of hepatitis C, hepatitis B and HIV in chronically transfused β-thalassaemia major patients. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2012;22(9):610-1.
GBD 2017 Cirrhosis Collaborators. The global, regional, and national burden of cirrhosis by cause in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet GastroenterolHepatol. 2020 Mar;5(3):245-266. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30349-8. Epub 2020 Jan 22. PMID: 31981519; PMCID: PMC7026710.
Zhang Q, Qi W, Wang X, Zhang Y, Xu Y, Qin S et al. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infections and Benefits of Programs for Hepatitis Prevention in Northeastern China: A Cross-Sectional Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 1;62(3):305-12. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ859. Epub 2015 Oct 3. PMID: 26433720.
Iradukunda PG, Habyarimana T, Niyonzima FN, Uwitonze AY, Mpunga T. Risk factors associated with hepatitis B and C in rural population of Burera district, Rwanda. Pan Afr Med J. 2020 Feb 12;35(3):43. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.35.43.16226. PMID: 32499858; PMCID: PMC7245981.
Samo AA, Laghari ZA, Baig NM, Khoso GM. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Hepatitis B and C in Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Dec 21;104(3):1101–5. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1228. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33350368; PMCID: PMC7941847.
Hartleb M, Gutkowski K, Zejda JE, Chudek J, Więcek A. Serological prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection in the elderly population: Polish nationwide survey--PolSenior. Eur J GastroenterolHepatol. 2012 Nov;24(11):1288-95. doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e328357632a. PMID: 22864260.
Khan F, Shams S, Qureshi ID, Israr M, Khan H, Sarwar MT et al. Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab. Virol J. 2011 May 13;8:225. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-225. PMID: 21569532; PMCID: PMC3118204